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Disposable syringes are mass-produced by a process known as injection molding. In this process the raw thermo plastic material, usually in the form of small beads, is melted and forced under pressure into the mold cavities of a molding machine. These machines may be able to produce as many as several hundred components in a cycle with two or three cycles per minute. The barrel and plunger are produced separately. This molding process must be continuously monitored to insure that the barrel size is accurate. Both the barrel and plunger (piston) must be exactly correct in size to work properly, especially in the two-part syringes. Because of this, things like shrinkage of materials upon cooling and relative elasticity on curing must be taken into account.

The three-part syringes are relatively easier to manufacture because they require less demanding dimensional accuracy, then the 2 part type syringes.

After molding the parts are fed to assembly machines. In this process they are sorted, oriented and fitted to one another. In the three-part syringes, the rubber or elastomeric tips are added to the plunger. Silicone oil is sprayed into the barrel of the three-part syringe. The assembled syringes are then packaged and sterilized.

Because this process is an assembly line where millions can be produced in a matter of hours, it is easy to see why particular custom changes to product lines are very expensive or sometimes impossible. Every time the process of production is stopped, a large amount of potential production is lost.

The assembled products are then packed. Packing can be in several different formats; the most common types are Blister pack and Ribbon pack. Here again both the types, serve their own purpose, while the ribbon pack is hardier, the blister pack is significantly better to sterilize and keep sterile. The choice of paper in the blister pack plays a significant role, this paper should be of medical grade, non shedding materials, and suitable to allow sterilization, while allowing for retention of sterility of the products for a suitably long period of time.


There are two types of sterilization in general use. These are gamma radiation and ethylene oxide gas saturation. In the gamma radiation technique, each syringe is exposed to a dose of radiation sufficient to kill all organisms and spores. This technique is widely used for most newly constructed production facilities because of its simplicity and relative low initial cost. Gammier radiation has easier quality control requirements and is readily adaptable to automated quality control systems. Since thermo plastics usually become brittle or discolored by gamma radiation, special inhibitors must be added to the plastic. It is interesting to note that most manufacturers adjust enough inhibitor to pass the initial exposure. This makes further exposure to gamma radiation not recommended since discoloration and loss of flexibility will probably result.

The ethylene oxide (ETO) gas technique involves exposing the syringe to a specific concentration of ETO in a special pressurized chamber. In the process, the gas in vapor phase is put into the evacuated sterilization chamber. The amount and pressure is controlled and must meet a standard specification. The syringes are exposed and the ETO is depleted by the reaction. After this exposure, the chamber is purged and washed with airing specific cycle until the washing air contains no ETO. Each chamber is fitted with numerous test packages composed of particularly resistant bacteria spores to insure the efficacy of the operation.ETO is a very reactive gas and breaks down readily when exposed to air. Even though there is little possibility of residual ETO on the syringes, they are sampled and tested for residue.

When purchasing or using a disposable syringe, consideration should be given to the implications of its configuration, composition, and process of manufacture. For example.

If you are concerned about the silicone oil and its relationship to connective tissue disorder, then either use a syringe with no silicone oil or at the very least when using a three-part syringe inject with the needle portion of the syringe pointed down. This will keep a portion of the un dissolved oil in the dead space of the syringe.

If you are using a disposable syringe in a lab for research, etc.,beware of solutions that may contain hydro carbons. These may react with a three-part syringe. If performing repeated draws, a compound may be "carried" along even after purging. Thus, the probability of contamination is increased. The two-part syringe is probably your best choice for laboratory work.

For IVF, embryo transfer, amniocentesis and very sensitive procedures, silicone oil an drubber should be avoided.

For latex sensitive patients, chose a latex free two-part syringe. Although there have been some tests performed and reports written, there are still many questions to be answered especially in the area of latex and silicone sensitivity.

If you wish to avoid both latex and silicone oil, Choose a 2 part disposable syringe.

Removing micronized air bubbles from liquid are essential for the safety and security of people and projects. Eliminating trapped air bubbles from inside a syringe, for example, is critical before injecting a human being or animal with a vaccine.

    Turn the filled syringe upside down. The needle should now be pointing upward with the plunger facing the ground.
  • Pull the plunger downward very slowly until a small empty space can be seen within the barrel of the syringe just below the needle.
  • Flick the barrel of the syringe with your fingers. This causes all air inside the syringe to rise upward.
  • Push the plunger upward now a little faster than before. Once a small amount of medicine squirts out of the needle, the air should be removed.

The 2 part range of syringes manufactured by Goa Medicare Devices, are completely free from latex and or other forms of natural or synthetic rubber. These are designed for use with almost all known solvents / Chemicals, however like all plastic components, they should not be used with paraldehyde’s.

Latex, also known as rubber or natural latex, is derived from the milky sap of the rubber tree, found in Africa and Southeast Asia.

Latex allergy is an allergic reaction to substances in natural latex. Rubber gloves are the main source of allergic reactions, although latex is also used in other products such as condoms and some medical devices.

What Causes Latex Allergies?

The exact cause of latex allergies is unknown, but it is thought that repeated exposure to latex and rubber products may induce symptoms.

About 5% to 10% of health care workers have some form of allergy to latex.

Who Is Affected By Latex Allergies?

Other than health care workers, people at increased risk for developing latex allergies include those who have:

  • A defect in their bone marrow cells
  • A deformed bladder or urinary tract
  • A history of multiple surgeries
  • A urinary catheter, which has a rubber tip
  • Allergy, asthma, or eczema
  • Food allergies to bananas, avocados, kiwis, or chestnuts

Rubber industry workers and condom users are also at increased risk for developing a latex allergy.

How Do People Get Exposed to Latex?

Routes of latex exposure include:

  • Through the skin, as occurs when latex gloves are worn
  • Through mucous membranes, such as the eyes, mouth, vagina, and rectum
  • Through inhalation; rubber gloves contain a powder that can be inhaled.
  • Through the blood, as may occur when some medical devices containing rubber are used

What Happens During a Latex Reaction?

There are three types of latex reactions:

Irritant contact dermatitis.
The least threatening type of latex reaction, classified as a non-allergenic skin reaction. It usually occurs as a result of repeated exposure to chemicals in latex gloves and results in dryness, itching, burning, scaling, and lesions of the skin.

Allergic contact dermatitis.
A delayed reaction to additives used in latex processing, which results in the same type of reactions as irritant contact dermatitis (dryness, itching, burning, scaling, and lesions of the skin). The reaction, though, is more severe, spreads to more parts of the body, and lasts longer.

Immediate allergic reaction (latex hypersensitivity).
The most serious reaction to latex. It can show up as rhinitis with hay fever-like symptoms, conjunctivitis (pink eye), cramps, hives, and severe itching. It is rare, but symptoms may progress to include rapid heartbeat, tremors, chest pain, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure, anaphylactic shock, or potentially, death.

What Should I Do During an Allergic Reaction to Latex?

Allergic reactions to latex can range from skin redness and itching to more serious symptoms, such as hives or gastrointestinal problems. True allergic reactions to latex rarely progress to the life-threatening conditions such as low blood pressure, difficulty breathing or rapid heart rate. However, if left untreated, these conditions could potentially result in death.

If any reaction is observed, Contact your doctor immediately.